Test of Orthographic Competence (TOC)
Author(s): Nancy Mather, PhD / Rhia Roberts, PhD / Donald D. Hammill, EdD / Elizabeth A. Allen, PhD
- Orthographic Skills
- Individual/Group Administration
- Ages 6 through 17
- Qualification Level B
DescriptionSigns and SymbolsGrapheme MatchingHomophone ChoicePunctuation
The TOC evaluates students’ mastery of conventions of written English that are integral to proficient reading and writing, among them letters, spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, and special symbols. The TOC has separate forms for three age groups (6-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13-17 years). Classroom teachers, special education teachers, reading specialists, school psychologists, speech pathologists, or any other professionals with some training in standardized test administration can use the TOC.
Different subtests are used for different age groups. Students ages 6-7 are assessed on:
The subtests for students 8-12 years are:
Homophone ChoicePunctuationAbbreviationsLetter ChoiceWord ScrambleSight Spelling
For ages 13-17, the subtests are:
PunctuationAbbreviationsLetter ChoiceWord ScrambleSight SpellingWord Choice
The TOC was normed on a nationally representative sample of 1,477 individuals. It evidences a very high degree of reliability across all three types of reliability (coefficient alpha, test-retest, and scorer differences). Alphas for the composites range from .90 to .98 and from .81 to .97 for the subtests. The overall Orthographic Ability Index correlates in the .70s with 10 popular measures of reading and writing.
Administration and Scoring
Testing takes 30-45 minutes. The results of the subtests on each version are combined to form an overall composite, Orthographic Ability. The results from the two older age groups also generate three additional composites: Conventions, Spelling Accuracy, and Spelling Fluency. Standard scores and percentiles are provided for both subtests and composites.