Test of Problem Solving 2 Adolescent
Author(s): Linda Bowers, MA, CCC-SLP / Rosemary Huisingh, MA, CCC-SLP / Carolyn LoGiudice, MA, CCC-SLP
DescriptionSubtest A: Making Inferences: Give a logical explanation about a situation, combining CURRENT information with background knowledgeSubtest B: Determining Solutions: Provide a logical solution for some aspect of a situation presentedSubtest C: Problem Solving: Recognize the problem, find alternate solutions, evaluate options, and state an appropriate solutionSubtest D: Interpreting Perspectives: Evaluate other points of view to draw a conclusionSubtest E: Transferring Insights: Compare analogous situations by using information stated in the passage
The TOPS 2 Adolescent assesses critical thinking abilities based on the student's language strategies and use of logic and experience. The test uses problem-solving situations related to adolescent experiences and assesses five decision-making skill areas critical to success in the academic, problem-solving, and social arenas. The TOPS 2 Adolescent is intended for use by speech-language pathologists, psychologists, and other professionals familiar with language disorders.
Based on the research of Richard Paul, the TOPS 2 Adolescent focuses on the cognitive processes of Understanding/comprehension, analysis, interpretation, self-regulation, evaluation, explanation, inference, insight, decision making, intent/purpose, problem solving, and acknowledgment. Five subtests with 18 written passages make up the assessment and require the student to carefully attend to, process, and think about what is heard and read; to think with a purpose in mind; to resist the urge to be impulsive; and to express answers verbally. The subtests are:
The test was normed on a nationally representative sample of 1,051 individuals, and an additional 138 students with language disorders were included in the validity studies. Statistical analysis showed strong reliability, with a test-retest coefficient of .91 for the total test; and good validity, with t-values for differences between normal and language-disordered subjects significant at the .01 level for all age levels.
Administration and Scoring
Administration takes about 40 minutes. There are no basals or ceilings. Acceptable responses are listed on the Test Form. Raw scores are converted to standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents.
The Manual includes recommendations for remediation based on subtest performance, and details what the student needs to do to be successful with each task, how the tasks relate to academic performance, the specific steps to complete each thinking task, and what the student's responses reflect about his or her thinking skills.