Test of Memory and Learning-Senior (TOMAL-SE)
Author(s): Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD / Judith K. Voress, PhD
Now there is a memory test designed to be used with older individuals who may tire easily or become distracted. Seniors are among the most likely group to have memory issues, but most memory batteries are either too long for them or too short to thoroughly assess memory. The TOMAL-SE is thorough yet short enough to keep individuals on task.
The TOMAL-SE has six core subtests (Memory for Stories, Facial Memory, Word List Learning, Object Recall, Visual Sequential Memory, and Memory for Location) and three verbal delayed-recall tasks.
The TOMAL-SE was normed on more 428 adults in a nationally representative sample. Reliability estimates are uniformly high across age levels and for various clinical samples, with all composite-score average reliability coefficients having values of .94 or higher. Subtest scores have a majority of average reliability coefficients in the .90s as well, with the lowest value being .81 for Facial Memory. Test-retest reliability coefficients are all .80 or higher for the subtest scores, and for the composite indexes all coefficients are .92 or higher. The test also was evaluated at the item and subtest levels for gender and ethnic bias. The results of these studies provide strong evidence for a lack of bias and favor consistency across gender and across U.S.-born ethnic groups.
Administration and Scoring
Test administration takes 25–35 minutes. Scores from the six core and three delayed-recall tasks are used to derive the Core Indexes (Verbal Memory, Nonverbal Memory, and Composite Memory) and the Supplementary Indexes (Verbal Delayed Recall and Learning). Learning curves can be plotted for each examinee for subtests in the Learning Index.
Subtest raw scores are converted to scaled scores and percentiles; composite scores and indexes are converted to standard scores.